UK Corporate Tax Rates 2023: Understanding the Latest Changes

UK corporate tax rates will change this month. If you’re a business owner or CFO, you need to understand how the new rates will apply to your business. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the new corporation tax rates and how you can calculate how much you owe. 

What Is UK Corporate Tax rates? 

All UK businesses must pay corporation tax. The tax applies to profits, i.e. revenue minus expenses. Every year, businesses must submit a UK Corporate Tax rates return. 

Do sole proprietorships and partnerships have to pay UK Corporate Tax rates? 

No, instead, sole traders and sole traders must submit a self-assessment form to HMRC, which will then calculate the tax payable. 

Will UK Corporate Tax rates Increase In 2023? 

In 2010, when the Conservative Party came to power, the UK Corporate Tax rates was 28%. This rate has decreased to 19% over the years. 

However, in 2021, the then chancellor Rishi Sunak (now Chancellor) said businesses had to pay more tax because they had received significant government support during the pandemic.

When she became Prime Minister, Liz Truss and her Chancellor, Kwasi Kwarteng, announced that they would maintain efficiency at 19%. The measure and other controversial policy changes, such as unfunded tax cuts for high earners, have increased government borrowing costs and mortgage interest rates. 

Mr Kwarteng was made redundant on 14 October 2022, and Ms Truss said corporation tax would increase to 25%. This was confirmed in November 2022 by new prime minister Jeremy Hunt and in the spring budget. 

Even with tax increases, UK businesses will benefit from the lowest UK Corporate Tax rates in the G7. 

What Will UK Corporate Tax Rates Be Like In 2023? 

From April 2023, the UK corporation tax rate will increase from 19% to 25%. However, only businesses with taxable profits over £250,000  pay the main tax rate of 25%. 

Those with taxable profits of £50,000 or less will remain at the 19% rate (known as the small profits rate). Businesses with taxable profits between the small profit rate and the main rate will benefit from the relief, which allows businesses to reduce their corporation tax rate compared to the main rate. 

How Do You Calculate UK Corporate Tax rates? 

Mitigation Measure provides for a gradual increase in the UK Corporate Tax rates between the small profits rate and the main rate. HMRC has launched a new online service to help businesses calculate marginal corporation tax updates relief from 1 April 2023. 

Before Using The Calculator, You Need: 

  1. Start date and your organization’s accounting period end date 
  2. Your  total company taxable profits 
  3. Total distributions from non-group and non-affiliated companies 
  4. Details of any affiliated companies 
  5. Some companies cannot claim relief, including: 
  6. Non-UK resident companies 
  7. Closed investment holding companies 

Profitable companies (including distributions from unrelated and unaffiliated companies) exceeding £250,000 

So, Do I Calculate My Corporation Tax For 2023  Manually? 

You can calculate your business taxes manually after April using the following method:

1 – multiply your annual profit by the main rate of 25%  

2 – subtract your annual profit of £250,000 

3 – multiply the total from Step 2 by the marginal rate multiplier (3/ 200 ) 

4 – subtract the result of Step 3 from Step 1 

The final figure is the amount you will owe in corporation tax for the 2023/4 tax year. 

How Can I Pay My Business Taxes Online? 

You must pay corporation tax updates nine months and one day after closing your company’s accounts. 

It’s up to you to know how much UK Corporate Tax rates your company must pay. This number comes from your business tax return. To pay corporation tax, log in to your HMRC account and select a payment method. Note that you cannot use a personal credit card to pay business taxes. 

In the 2021 budget, it was announced that corporation tax would increase from 1 April 2023. This decision was reversed and then reinstated in the two autumn 2023 budgets. 

What Changes? 

Historically, in recent years, the UK Corporate Tax rates rate has been uniformly applied at 19%. 

From April 2023

The main corporation tax rate will be 25% for companies with profits of £250,000 or more – this applies to all profits. 

A small profit rate of 19% will exist for companies with profits of £50,000 or less. 

The main rate will be reduced from £50,000 to £250,000 

However, there are some important changes to This rule, and details deserve attention. 

Of course, UK Corporate Tax rates do not exist in isolation. Therefore, in this article, we will consider the impact of this change in the broader context of a small business’s overall tax obligations. 

Understanding Reduction – Marginal Rate And Effective Rate 

Reduction Takes A Little Understanding 

The official rate expression is: 

  1. If profits are over £250,000, the main rate of 25% will apply to all profits, including those under £250,000. 
  2. If profits are greater than £50,000 or less than the small business rate of 19% Applies to all profits 
  3. If profits fall between these thresholds, the main rate of 25% will apply, and the business is entitled to Marginal Small Business Relief (MSCR) with respect to the liability calculated. 

Relief For Small And Marginal Businesses 

MSCR mitigates the impact of rising interest rates. 

The calculation of MSCR is as follows: 

(Upper Limit – Profit) x Profit/Basic Profit x MSCR Fraction 


The upper limit is £250,000 

Basic Profit is The commercial profits/profits of companies. 

Profit is underlying profit plus Fixed Investment Income (FII is usually dividends from other companies) 

The MSCR ratio is 3/200 

However, there is  a simpler way of expressing it on the basis of the batching department when there is no FII:

Profit Band Marginal Rate 

£0 to £50,000 19D44 £50,000 to £249,000 26.5D44 £250,000 plus 25D

44 These bands give the same result as the full formula and are easier to use, but maybe not as politically friendly as far as the Treasury is concerned. 

Bear in mind these are Marginal Rates, not Average Rates, for example: 

Example, Profits £100,000 

Slice £ Rate % Tax £ 

£50,000 19.0% £9,500 

£50,000 26.5% £13,250 

Effective Rate and Total Tax 

£100,000 22.75% £22,750 

So, we see an Effective Rate of 22.75% and a Marginal Rate of 26.5%. 

The £22,750 is the same result as charging the whole profits at 25% and applying MSCR as legislation suggests. 

The Effective Corporation Tax rate at various profit levels will be: 

Profits £50,000 £75,000 £100,000 £150,000 £200,000 £250,000 

Effective CT .00!.50″.75$.00$.63%.00D44 This Effective Rate applies to the whole of the profits. 

How Does This Effective Rate Impact Dividends? 

Corporate dividends are paid from profits after UK Corporate Tax rates – so more UK Corporate Tax update rates mean less profit distribution, but personal dividend tax (a form of income tax) for dividends will decrease. 

Please see our limited company tax page for a current analysis of the effective tax rate on dividends, combining corporation tax and dividend tax. 

Many Businesses 

Many businesses encounter a number of pitfalls with the new UK Corporate Tax rates. 

In short, the £50,000 and £250,000 thresholds are allocated where there are associated companies. This means that the primary rate occurs at a lower rate. The apportionment is on a strict arithmetical basis, so for situations where aggregate profits are below £250,000, care will be needed to make sure each company is as close as possible to its peers in terms of profit levels – we will look at this below. 

Associated Company Definition 

An affiliated company is a company under common control. The regulations on this matter are complex, but in general, they apply to the different groups of individuals who control businesses and commonality within those groupings. In practical terms, companies will be associated with:

They are controlled by the same individual, eg: 

  1. Mrs. X owns 100% of A Limited and 100% of B Limited – the companies will be Associated 
  2. Mr Y owns 100% of A Limited and 80% of B Limited – the companies will be Associated 
  3. Mr Z owns 100% of A Limited and 20% of B Limited – the companies will not be affiliated. 

Associated Company Apportionment 

Where companies are Associated, the £50,000 and £250,000 thresholds are strictly apportioned. If two connected companies, then each has a £25,000 Small Profit Rate threshold. 

The strict apportionment can cause an anomaly if profits are not equal – in the following examples, the aggregate profit is £50,000, but the splits differ: 

e.g. 1 – Companies A and B are under common control and hence Associated. A makes an annual profit of £22,000 and B £28,000. After MSCR for B, the respective Corporation Tax liabilities are £4,180 and £5,545, a total of £9,725 

E.g. 2 – Companies A and B are under common control and hence Associated. A makes an annual profit of £48,000 and B £2,000. After the MSCR for A, the corporation tax liability is £10,845 and £380, respectively, for a total of £11,225. This is £1,500 more than the previous example, although the benefits are the same. 

e.g 3 – Both companies made a profit of £25,000 each. The total profit is the same as in the previous examples. The corporation tax for each company is £4,750, for a total of £9,500. 

In Summary 

Nothing in this article constitutes legal advice on which you should rely. The article is provided for general information purposes only. Professional legal advice should always be sought before taking any action in connection with or relying on the contents of this article. Our platform terms of use apply to this article title.

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